Jean-François Lyotard Translated by Georges Van den Abbeele. The Differend. “ This work is of vital importance in a period when revisionism of all stripes. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box Jean-François Lyotard in Continental Philosophy. (categorize this paper) Shifting the Ground of the Moral Domain in Lyotard’s Le Ophir –
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Events always exceed interpretation; there is always something “left over” that an interpretation does not account for.
Different types of utterances, as identified by Wittgenstein, pertain to different types of language games. As if to make up for this they are secretly haunted by dreams in which they no longer live, but were gassed inas if their entire existence after that was purely imaginary, emanation of the vagrant wish of someone who was killed twenty years ago.
The fact that the differend masks injustices require s that one whom is motivated by a sense of justice address, and resolve, the pro blem.
Imagine that subsequent to the origin al wrong a phrase is found that appears to express the original situation in the genre of discourse within which it was previously inexpressible. Thus the sublime is situated at the differend between language games and phrase regimes; we feel a mixture of pleasure and pain in the frustration of not knowing how to follow on from a phrase but feeling that there is something important that must be put into words.
Violence appears to be the only opti on for Lyotard. Although these idioms are ultimately insuffic ient they do provide better opportunities than had previously existed. This stage in the transformation of the libidinal band represents the formation of rational thought, dominated by binary logic and the law of noncontradiction.
Lyotard’s analysis of the limits of reason and representation is played out in Discours, figure through the terms of the discursive and the figural.
Every phrase presents a universe, composed of the following four elements or, as Lyotard calls them, instances: For Lyotard, this fact has a deep difgerend import, since politics claims to be based on accurate representations of reality. The tensor expresses the theory of dissimulation at work in the sign. It is Adorno who introduced the way in which the Holocaust re-defined death as negation, as an act or an outcome that had no meaning.
Difderend ‘force’ of the phrase is judged by the standard of a genre’s r ules, the same phrase is weak or strong depending upon what is at stake. The law of concatenation states that these linkages must be made – that is, a phrase must be followed by another phrase – but that how to link is never determinate. Editions Le Griffon d’argile, Since one must link, even if particular linkages are contingent, then in order to express all of the concerns of all parties involved what is required i s the creation of new linkages within a particular genre of discourse.
One cannot claim, “Here is a wrong I just cannot express it.
The politics of the libidinal philosophy revolves around a nuanced reading of Marx and a duplicitous relation to capitalism.
Gary Rolfe – – Nursing Inquiry 13 1: If this in fact is the c ase, then one quickly recognizes that Lyotard either has not found the adequate solution to this problem, or his philosophy precludes any solution whatsoever.
Reflections on Time, trans. To elaborate on what was said above; genres of discourse themselves are inc ommensurable. Lyotard presents various examples of the differend, the most important of which is Auschwitz. One witnesses or recognizes that an injustice has occurred, however this ca nnot be expressed, there is no idiom to communicate the idea.
Discourse contains elements of the figural poetry and illuminated texts are good examplesand visual space can be structured like discourse when it is broken up into ordered elements in order for the world to be recognisable and navigable by the seeing subject. Without criteria for justice and a common ground all acts are simply acts of violence each as justifi able as the next and none securing the justice with which Lyotard is so concerne d. Linking onto phrases within an economic genre of discourse with phrases motivated by academic concerns will cause the linkage of those phra ses to be deemed inappropriate, and hence unintelligible or irrelevant.
This odd lacunae in history—the reluctance to seek the truth and the resistance to the facts—was not a particular French fault but a generalized situation and the French Jews were actually early in their demands that history be correctly and completely recounted.
Jean-François Lyotard: “The Différend,” Part Three
His aim is to show that structuralism ignores the figural elements at work both outside and within representational structures.
For Lyotard language is composed of a multiplicity of phrase regimes which cannot be translated into each other. There is a strong correlation between his concern that events are not done justice by any one theoretical, representational system, and his concern that events of political import are not done justice by the way any particular political party or philosophy represents them.
Their continued existence already necessitates the coldness, of the basic principle of capitalist subjectivity, without which Auschwitz would not have been possible: What is at stake in the genre of comedy, for example, is to be humorous, to make people laugh.
Edinburgh University Press, The subject cannot be seen as a master of language games, a unifying power, but is rather a node at which different incommensurable language games intersect. Libidinal Economy begins with the figure of a body ambivalently sexedbeing cut open and spread out to form a flat, band-like surface.
That is, for Lyotard the meaning of a phrase as event something happens cannot be fixed by appealing to reality what actually happened.
Jean-François Lyotard: “Le Différend,” Part One | Art History Unstuffed
What sense of the phrase is meant? He surmises that a nationalist, democratic revolution will only lead to new forms of social inequality and domination, and insists that a socialist revolution is necessary. The habit of a Marxist analysis existed as a subterranean subtext with in The Postmodern Condition: On the one hand Lyo tard suggests that it is the duty of the observer to bear witness to the differe nd, thereby recognizing that violence has been done.
The two possibilities p or not-p both lead to the same conclusion Fp.
The Differend – Wikipedia
The Lyotard Reader, ed. In his writings on paganism, Lyotard analyses politics in the form of a justice of rhetoric. For Lyotard change is life affirming, whereas the stable structures that inhibit change are nihilistic and life denying. According diferend the “narrative” of science, however, only knowledge which is legitimated is legitimate – i. What is Interdisciplinary Communication? Signed, Malraux is an unconventional autobiography.
Jean Francois Lyotard The Differend Phrases In Dispute
In Just Gaminghe analyses situations where questions of justice and judgement arise in terms of language games. That is, they are of radically different types and cannot be meaningfully compared through an initial presentation of the phrase event of which they are situations.
With vast amounts of knowledge stored digitally in databases, who decides what knowledge is ghe storing what is legitimate knowledge and who has access to these databases? W hat would these criteria be if not rationality, a standard of argument that reco gnizes all of those involved differehd long as they play by the rules of rational argum entation.
If one recognizes that a wrong has been done, then one is to b ear witness to the violence. Lyotard had met Souyris at a union meeting late inand they had a long and close friendship, eventually troubled by political and theoretical differences.