Digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and digestive glands. Alimentary Canal: The alimentary canal is a straight tube from mouth to anus. It is lined by. The lancelets, also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus), consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine. The common lancelet, Branchiostoma lanceolatum, has been recorded from the . The digestive system of Branchiostoma consists of an alimentary canal and.

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Phylum Chordata – Phylum Chordata Placental Mammals Eutherians complete their embryonic development in the female uterus and are joined to the female by the placenta that is more If the water current contains any toxic substance, the atriopore closes and the water is regurgitated by sudden contraction of the pterygial muscles which form the floor of the atrium. Anatomy of a Branchiostoma lancelet.

Hirakow R, Kajita N.

Digestive Systems of Branchiostoma and Ascidia | Zoology

The buccal cirri are beset with sensory cells some of which are mechanoreceptors. Ikuta T, et al. Some papillae on the floor of the diestive contain phagocytic cells which engulf food particles which may pass into the atrial cavity.

Behind the pharynx, the alimentary canal narrows at its posterior side into an esophagus which opens into the midgut. The Central Nervous System of Vertebrates.

Both digestive and excretory functions have been suggested by many workers. Both are ciliated and glandular, and secretes mucus.

Phagocytic intracellular digestion in amphioxus (Branchiostoma)

Since the lining of epithelium is devoid of glands the stomach in monotremes is not considered as a true stomach. The cleavage is holoblastic, i. Revealing homologies between body parts of digestlve related animals by in situ hybridization to developmental genes: Each gill-slit is divided by the developing tongue-bars which become connected by transverse connecting bars called synapticulate. From the atrium the gametes escape to the exterior through the atriopore along with the water current.


An electron microscopic study of the development of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaoensis cleavage.

Phylum chordata and protochordates – presented and prepared by sadia khurshid lecturer zoology department da amphiioxus for women,phase xmphioxus phylum chordata protochordates There are about 60 pairs of myotomes in Branchiostoma.

Also like vertebrates, the muscles are arranged in blocks called myomeres. Several ciliated tracts are present inside the pharynx. During the inflow of water current, the buccal cirri form a sieve to prevent the entry of large particles.

The oral hood is supported internally by a series of gelatinous but stiff pieces arranged end to end. Surrounding the notochordal sheath there is a non-cellular gelatinous layer containing few fibres. It is lined partly by endocrine cells which are believed to secrete pituitary-like hormones into the blood. A large median aperture is situated just below the pointed tip of the anterior end rostrum. The epithelial cells in the hindgut can also phagocytize diegstive cells chowever, the phagocytic capability amphilxus these cells seems more limited than that of diverticulum epithelial dihestive, which are longer and more numerous figure 2.

In platypus the two limbs — namely cardiac and pyloric — are almost fused along the lesser curvature and appear as a wide sac. The rate of contraction is very slow and occurs once in two minutes.

The blood vessels, except the dorsal aorta, are without any lining. Tree of Life III: ConclinTung et al. Here, by using an improved method of tissue fixation for transmission electron microscopy TEMwe show that B. Classification of anthropoid primates.


The oral hood encloses a cavity called vestibule. Genomics 11— The dorsal fin is joined to a somewhat broader caudal fin present round smphioxus tail.

A smphioxus of brown funnels are also claimed to play excretory role. The epithelial cells are of columnar type Fig. Canadian Journal of Zoology. In hemichordates the muscles are un-segmented and most of the structures are rudimentary in nature. It contains zymogen cells which produce digestive enzymes a lipase and a protease and are carried into the lumen of the midgut by ciliary activity. BioEssays 23— The primary branchial lamellae are connected by transverse skeletal rods called the synapticulae Fig.

Celeste Tanguay Created Date. Reproduction by a juvenile Each running on the lateral side wall of the pharynx behind the velum and demarcates a narrow anterior prebranchial region of the pharynx from the proper large posterior pharynx.

He, therefore, suggested that both extracellular and intracellular digestion can occur in Branchiostoma [ 9 ]. Genomic complexity of the variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins in amphioxus. Genomics, evolution and development of amphioxus and tunicates: Each micromere is divided into an upper and a lower macromere.

The midgut diverticulum is often called liver or hepatic caecum, but it does not resemble a digestjve in structure or function, though its blood vessels are somewhat like those found in the liver of vertebrates.